Commodore was an international company, with branches in the UK, Australia, France, Japan, etc. making independent marketing & purchasing decisions, and even sometimes leading design work in collaboration with their US counterparts. That said, Commodore Japan pretty much gave up the ghost after their only success, the VIC-20, spurred increased competition from NEC, Sharp & Fujitsu’s home computers, and their neutered C-64 was a colossal failure in the ensuing home-grown onslaught. From that point on, Commodore retained a presence, however miniscule, in the Japanese market, primarily as a mere distributor of its US models. Japanese system software never materialized from Commodore themselves, making their computers niche products for Japanese lovers of Western hardware and English-only games. The Amiga nevertheless drew attention from the Japanese computer press and TV industry for its role as an inexpensive video production, animation, and graphics tool. Over time, user groups and specialist shops formed, and oddly, around 1993 for some reason, a new wave of Japanese Amiga evangelicism produced several books to cater to Amiga beginners and graphics users.